Ohio is suffering from a tremendous decline in both potassium and phosphorus balance trends, which may increase an already high percentage of soils testing below the critical level.

The eKonomics nutrient balance analysis is the industry’s first to annually assess state-by-state nutrient removal records, fertilizer consumption information, and manure data. Findings reveal that a large percentage of soils are becoming depleted of nutrients at an alarming rate, causing many areas to fall below the critical level for potassium and phosphorus. Is your farm among them?

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Nearly half of Ohio farm fields are critically deficient in at least one of two key soil nutrients, which is decreasing both crop yields and farmer income throughout the state.

These are the findings of the International Plant Nutrition Institute (IPNI), which recently collected more than four million soil samples from farms across North America – including 327,000 in Ohio – and had them analyzed by both public and private laboratories.

“This landmark study shows that 48 percent of Ohio farms are critically deficient in phosphorus, while 35 percent are critically deficient in potassium,” said Dr. Robert Mullen, Director of Agronomy at Nutrien.

Nutrient Balance Data



While the “critically below” figures show some improvement in potassium in the last five years, phosphorus figures are worse since 2010. Since 1975, potassium nutrient balances in the state are down by 169 percent, and phosphate nutrient balances are down 160 percent.

Farmers are leaving thousands of dollars in the field

Given the importance of potassium and phosphorus to crop health and yields, these figures should paint a sobering picture for Ohio farmers.

“Under current conditions, one-third of Ohio farmers are losing money because they are potassium deficient and almost half are losing out by shorting the soil of phosphorus,” Mullen said. “When times get tough and crop prices are down, the natural tendency is to pull back on your phosphorus and potassium applications, but more often than not, cutting back on crop nutrients means cutting back on profits.”

The problem of this practice, experts say, is that it leaves a lot of potential yield and profit lying dormant in the field.

Mullen uses the eKonomics ROI calculator to illustrate his point. “Let’s say you’re growing $3.60 corn on 190 acres with a yield potential of 200 bushels per acre. If you are below the critical level of potassium and you apply university recommended rates at today’s potash prices, you could increase your net profit by an average of $12,000.”

Potash is a major source of potassium and helps plants develop strong root systems giving crops greater resistance to drought, disease, and insects. Phosphate is the major source of phosphorus, the energizer of plant production, which increases yields.

Ohio crop advisors agree

Mike Dailey, Independent Certified Crop Advisor from East Central Ohio, has seen the nutrient deficiencies firsthand.

“This past year, I’d say that 75 percent of my farms have experienced a decrease in potassium balances,” he says.

“I had a farmer who had never applied potash before and I suggested he do so,” he says. “At the time he was relying solely on chicken manure and averaging about 115 bushels per acre of corn. Now it’s more like 186 bushels. And on 1,800 acres, that’s a big deal. The value of potassium can’t be overstated.”

Nutrient Balance Trends Sources:

1.) USDA-NASS: P2O5 and K2O nutrient removal obtained from harvested tonnage of crops from each state. Manure applied nutrients subtracted from harvest removal.

2.) AAPFCO: Fertilizer consumption data subtracted from the removal information to obtain a mass balance of nutrient levels for each year for each state. “Commercial Fertilizers 2014” is available; all earlier versions are still available. National fertilizer use data are available in a hard-copy publication, “Commercial Fertilizers 2014”, which is available from The Fertilizer Institute (TFI). The Association of American Plant Food Control Officials (AAPFCO), in partnership with TFI, has published the 2014 edition of the Commercial Fertilizer Report.

Percentage of Soils Below the Critical Level Sources:

International Plant Nutrition Institute: Data presented is based upon percent of samples testing below established critical levels for P and K for major crops in 2015. This includes results of P and K analysis performed on approximately 4.4 million soil samples. Critical Bray P1 equivalent levels for the soils and crops of the Great Plains and Corn Belt are usually around 20 ppm and increase to 25 to 50 ppm for the eastern U.S. Critical ammonium acetate K equivalent levels are generally in the 120 to 200 ppm range. Some crops may require substantially higher soil test levels than the critical level used in this analysis (consult your local university/agronomist for more information).

Important to Note: Soil testing is statewide and can differ within regions of every state and province. Nutrient management should occur on a site-specific basis where management objectives and the needs of individual fields and, in many cases, areas within fields, are recognized. Therefore, a general soil test summary like this one cannot reflect the specific needs of individual farms. Its value lies in calling attention to broad nutrient needs, trends, and challenges, and in motivating educational and action programs that are in turn relevant to growers and their advisers.

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